UJJAIN Tourism, UJJAIN Travel Guide, Madhya Pradesh Tourism

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About Ujjain - Madhya Pradesh Tourism

Ujjain is a major Hindu religious center popular among pilgrimage travellers for Mahakaleshwar Jyotirlinga, one of the twelve Jyotirlinga Shrines of god Shiva. Hindus believe that during "Sagar Manthan", one drop of nectar spilled over Ujjain and two parts of Skanda Purana were written here. The city also holds an important position on Madhya Pradesh tourism map for the mammoth religious festival - Kumbh Mela that is organized every twelve years at Ujjain. Kumbh Mela is the largest religious congregation in the world that is popular among domestic and international tourists. 

Ujjain, also known by the names of Ujjayini and Avanti, and is a historic city located in the Malwa region of Madha Pradesh. The city is situated on the eastern bank of the holy River Shipra and is one of the seven sacred cities for Hindus in India. Ujjain is one of the four cities in India including Haridwar, Allahabad, and Nashik. The city has been an important center of education since ancient times. The city has also been home to legendary ruler Chandragupta II, well known scholars Brahmagupta and Bhaskaracharya, and the great literary writer Kalidasa. 

Ujjain is very popular among Hindu pilgrims, and is known among tourists for its numerous holy shrines. These temples holds high historical and cultural significance for Hindus. The most popular temples in Ujjain are Mahakaleshwar temple - one of the tweleve Jyotirlingas; Kal Bhairav temple - dedicated to Kal Bhairav; Harsiddhi temple - a shakti peetha; Bade Ganeshji ka Mandir, Gopal Mandir, and Navgraha temple - dedicated to nine planets (grahas). Apart from these holy shrines, the city is also popular among travelers for the Ujjain Observatory - one of the five such observatory with ancient astronomical devices, Bhartrihari caves and Kaliadeh palace - ancient site that was restored by Scindia family. 

Ujjain History - Madhya Pradesh Tourism

Ujjain was an important city for settlers from the time of Aryans. By the 6th century B.C., Avanti with its capital at Ujjaini, is mentioned in Buddhist literature as one of the four great powers along with Vatsa, Kosala and Magadha. Ujjain lay on the main trade route between North India and Deccan going from Mathura via Ujjain to Mahismati (Maheshwar) on the Narmada, and on to Paithan on the Godavari, western Asia and the West.

Since the 4th century B.C. the city of Ujjain has marked the first meridian of longitude in Hindu geography. It is also reputed to have been the residence of Ashoka (who subsequently became the emperor), when he was the viceroy of the western provinces of the Mauryan Empire. In the 6th and 7th centuries, Ujjain was a major centre of mathematical and astronomical research. The famous mathematicians who worked there included: Brahmagupta, whose book Brahmasphutasiddhanta was responsible for spreading the use of zero, negative numbers and the positional number system to Arabia and Cambodia; Varahamihira, who was the first to discover many trigonometric identities; and Bhaskaracharya, or Bhaskara II, whose book Lilavati broke new ground in many areas of mathematics.

Ujjain was invaded by the forces of Delhi Sultanate led by Iltutmish in 1235, suffering widespread destruction and systematic desecration of temples. Under the Mughal emperor Akbar, it became the capital of Malwa. During the last half of the 18th century Ujjain was the headquarters of the Maratha leader Scindia. The Scindias later established themselves at Gwalior, and Ujjain remained part of Gwalior state until Indian Independence in 1947.

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